Vena Cava

This large vessel is split into a superior and inferior portion. The superior is the large vein that returns deoxygenated blood to the heart from the head, neck and upper limbs. The inferior transports deoxygenated blood from the lower torso and lower limbs.



The aorta is the largest artery in the body and is also split into two sections; the ascending and the descending aorta. The ascending part starts at the left ventricle and extends into the aortic arch. This then continues as the descending aorta, which runs down through the thorax and into the abdomen. Both sections of the aorta carry oxygen rich blood to organs and tissues.The aorta: showing the aortic loop, its branches and the ascending and descending portions of the vessel


Coronary Arteries

The myocardium, (muscular wall of the heart), is constantly active so needs a copious supply of both oxygen and nutrients from the blood. This supply is provided by the coronary arteries. Both the left and right coronary arteries stem from the aortic arch and supply blood to the cardiac muscle of the heart.


Pulmonary Arteries

The pulmonary arteries are terminal branches of the pulmonary trunk. The right pulmonary artery is longer than the left and transports blood to the hilum of the right lung. The left pulmonary artery has a shorter distance to travel, piercing the pericardium enroute to entering the hilum of heart, to pump around the body.the left lung. They carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen to return to the


Pulmonary Veins

In humans, there are four pulmonary veins; two from each lung. Each is a large blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. They carry oxygenated blood which is unusual as most other veins carry deoxygenated blood. 


 Image by Rhcastilhos (Own work) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsImage by Rhcastilhos (Own work) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons